In Latin the perfect tense, passive voice forms are two-part verbs. The first part is a perfect passive participle (PPP) coming from the fourth part of the dictionary entry of a verb, and the second part is a form of sum. The PPP agrees with the subject in all the ways an adjective would (case, number, and gender). The form of sum determines whether the two-part verb is perfect passive, pluperfect passive, or future perfect passive.

Latin to English - Two-part verbs "been" the rules. You can typically get a good translation remembering that. Two-part verbs also laugh at the other verb forms for having only one part: "Ha!" Remembering this will guide you to employ the helping verbs "have/has," "had," or "will have." If the second part of the two-part verb is just a regular form of the verb sum (sum, es, est; sumus, estis, sunt), then the tense of the two-part verb is just the regular perfect tense ("have been" or "has been"). If the second part of the two-part verb has an era- in it, then the two-part verb is pluperfect ("had been"). Recall the pluperfedon that HAD its ERA. If the second part of the two-part verb has an ero, eri-, or -eru-, then the two-part verb is future perfect ("will have been").

English to Latin - Refer to the Latin to English section.