Most adjectives using 1st and 2nd declension endings (-us/-er, -a, -um) change the adjective to an adverb by putting a long e (-ē) upon the adjective stem (the second part of the dictionary entry minus the -a). So, grātus, grāta, grātum – pleasing, welcome, grateful produces the adjective grātē - gratefully, and līber, lībera, līberum – free produces the adverb līberē – freely. There are a few irregular adverbs: The adverb for bonus (good) is bene (well); the adverb for malus (bad) is male (badly), ending with a short e (-e) instead of a long e ().